Camera Space Particle Filter for the Robust and Precise Indoor Localization of a Wheelchair

Chavez-Romero Raul , Cardenas Antonio , Maya Mauro , Sanchez Alejandra , Piovesan Davide
Journal of Sensors, Article ID 495695, in press., 2015.


This paper presents the theoretical development and experimental implementation of a sensing technique for the robust and precise localization of a robotic wheelchair. Estimates of the vehicle’s position and orientation are obtained, based on camera observations of visual markers located at discrete positions within the environment. A novel implementation of a particle filter on camera sensor space (Camera-Space Particle Filter) is used to combine visual observations with sensed wheel rotations mapped onto a camera space through an observation function.The camera space particle filter fuses the odometry and vision sensors information within camera space, resulting in a precise update of the wheelchair’s pose. Using this approach, an inexpensive implementation on an electric wheelchair is presented. Experimental results within three structured scenarios and comparative performance using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Camera-Space Particle Filter (CSPF) implementations are discussed. The CSPF was found to be more precise in the pose of the wheelchair than the EKF since the former does not require the assumption of a linear system affected by zero-mean Gaussian noise. Furthermore, the time for computational processing for both implementations is of the same order of magnitude.